Bakare BF, Enriched Co-Treatment of Pharmaceutical and Acidic Metal-containg wastewater with Nano Zero-valent iron.pdf (1.34 MB)
Enriched co-treatment of pharmaceutical and acidic metal-containing wastewater with nano zero-valent iron
journal contributionposted on 2022-01-04, 11:52 authored by Thobeka Pearl Makhathini, Jean Mulopo, Babatunde Femi Bakare
Among traditional hazardous waste sources, pharmaceutical-containing wastewater and acidic mine drainage need treatment to preserve the expected water supply quality. A nano zero-valent iron (nZVI)-enriched treatment of these two streams is evaluated for simultaneous removal of various heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, sulfates, the efficiency of the treatment system, and separation of reaction products in the fluidized-bed reactor. The reactor packed with silica sand was inoculated with sludge from an anaerobic digester, then 1–3 g/L of nZVI slurry added to cotreat a hospital feed and acid mine wastewater at 5:2 v/v. The biotreatment process is monitored through an oxidation–reduction potential (Eh) for 90 days. The removal pathway for the nZVI used co-precipitation, sorption, and reduction. The removal load for Zn and Mn was approximately 198 mg Zn/g Fe and 207 mg Mn/g Fe, correspondingly; achieving sulfate (removal efficiency of 94% and organic matter i.e., chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) reduced significantly, but ibuprofen and naproxen achieved 31% and 27% removal, respectively. This enriched cotreatment system exhibited a high reducing condition in the reactor, as confirmed by Eh; hence, the nZVI was dosed only a few times in biotreatment duration, demonstrating a cost-effective system.